J Gen Physiol. 2004 Jan;123(1):53-62.

Ca2+/calmodulin modulates TRPV1 activation by capsaicin.External 2231691f894ba696de1310221b0a0dbbb31a7251e75115c265587c3d9d5f507c

Rosenbaum, T., Gordon-Shaag, A., Munari, M., Gordon, S. E.,
["Department of Physiology and Biophysics, University of Washington, Seattle, WA 98195-7290, USA."]
TRPV1 ion channels mediate the response to painful heat, extracellular acidosis, and capsaicin, the pungent extract from plants in the Capsicum family (hot chili peppers) (Szallasi, A., and P.M. Blumberg. 1999. Pharmacol. Rev. 51:159-212; Caterina, M.J., and D. Julius. 2001. Annu. Rev. Neurosci. 24:487-517). The convergence of these stimuli on TRPV1 channels expressed in peripheral sensory nerves underlies the common perceptual experience of pain due to hot temperatures, tissue damage and exposure to capsaicin. TRPV1 channels are nonselective cation channels (Caterina, M.J., M.A. Schumacher, M. Tominaga, T.A. Rosen, J.D. Levine, and D. Julius. 1997. Nature. 389:816-824). When activated, they produce depolarization through the influx of Na+, but their high Ca2+ permeability is also important for mediating the response to pain. In particular, Ca2+ influx is thought to be required for the desensitization to painful sensations over time (Cholewinski, A., G.M. Burgess, and S. Bevan. 1993. Neuroscience. 55:1015-1023; Koplas, P.A., R.L. Rosenberg, and G.S. Oxford. 1997. J. Neurosci. 17:3525-3537). Here we show that in inside-out excised patches from TRPV1 expressed in Xenopus oocytes and HEK 293 cells, Ca2+/calmodulin decreased the capsaicin-activated current. This inhibition was not mimicked by Mg2+, reflected a decrease in open probability, and was slowly reversible. Furthermore, increasing the calmodulin concentration in our patches by coexpression of wild-type calmodulin with TRPV1 produced inhibition by Ca2+ alone. In contrast, patches excised from cells coexpressing TRPV1 with a mutant calmodulin did not respond to Ca2+. Using an in vitro calmodulin-binding assay, we found that TRPV1 in oocyte lysates bound calmodulin, although in a Ca2+-independent manner. Experiments with GST-fusion proteins corresponding to regions of the channel NH2-terminal domain demonstrated that a stretch of approximately 30 amino acids adjacent to the first ankyrin repeat bound calmodulin in a Ca2+-dependent manner. The physiological response to pain involves an influx of Ca2+ through TRPV1. Our results indicate that this Ca2+ influx may feed back on the channels, inhibiting their gating. This type of feedback inhibition could play a role in the desensitization produced by capsaicin.
PMID: 14699077External 2231691f894ba696de1310221b0a0dbbb31a7251e75115c265587c3d9d5f507c
Validation: In vitro validation Toggle 893349bafcc528f8346c51dc3420151d67b0126b2c122dd1017121c03fa0f69b
  Assay with recombinant proteins Reference
TRP channel construct Interactor construct
TRP channel Interactor Method Species Region Expression system Species Region Expression system
TRPV1 Link 2bd4d11adb659cddf58197a94e201f0a44c55d8d7cb427c624971b42e122c0a4 Calmodulin Fusion protein-pull down assay Rat N-terminus E. coli Not specified Full-length In vitro translation 14699077
(Link 2bd4d11adb659cddf58197a94e201f0a44c55d8d7cb427c624971b42e122c0a4: click the arrow icon to show interactions only between the corresponding TRP channel and the interactor)
Characterization Toggle 893349bafcc528f8346c51dc3420151d67b0126b2c122dd1017121c03fa0f69b
  Binding region mapping Stoichiometry Affinity (Kd) Reference
TRP channel Interactor
TRP channel Interactor Method Species Region Species Region
TRPV1 Link 2bd4d11adb659cddf58197a94e201f0a44c55d8d7cb427c624971b42e122c0a4 Calmodulin Fusion protein-pull down assay Rat 189-222 Not specified Not determined 14699077
(Link 2bd4d11adb659cddf58197a94e201f0a44c55d8d7cb427c624971b42e122c0a4: click the arrow icon to show interactions only between the corresponding TRP channel and the interactor)
Functional consequence Toggle 893349bafcc528f8346c51dc3420151d67b0126b2c122dd1017121c03fa0f69b
TRP channel Interactor Method Post-translational modification Subcellular trafficking Activity Reference
TRPV1 Link 2bd4d11adb659cddf58197a94e201f0a44c55d8d7cb427c624971b42e122c0a4 Calmodulin Patch clamp Inhibition 14699077
(Link 2bd4d11adb659cddf58197a94e201f0a44c55d8d7cb427c624971b42e122c0a4: click the arrow icon to show interactions only between the corresponding TRP channel and the interactor)
TRP / Interactor

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